Fungal decay occurs in timber which becomes wet for some time and is the result of the attack by one of a number of wood-destroying fungi. There has to be moisture to create a fungal decomposing of the timber. Timber decay is linked with dampness and due to the spread of moisture to building timbers, ultimately a fungal decay or rot is created within the timber. There are two types of rot, dry and wet rot. The most well known are dry rot, the latin name is Serpula lacrymans – the true dry rot fungus, Cellar fungus, the latin name is Coniophora puteana and the Pore or Mine fungus, the latin name is Poria vaillantii. Many other fungi also occur and some have recently been particularly linked with decay in door and window frames.
Dry rot and wet rot can affect buildings of all ages and if decay is discovered it should be identified and remedial action taken without delay. Dry rot is the most serious form of fungal decay in a building. It can spread onto and destroy much of the timber. Wet rot occurs more frequently, but is less serious; decay is typically confined to the area where timber has become and remains wet. Fungal decay always arises because the wood has become wet, usually timbers will be in excess of 20 per cent moisture content. Finding the source of dampness and eliminating the ingress of moisture and promoting drying is always necessary.
Outbreaks of dry rot and wet rot start in similar ways. The mature fruiting bodies of wood-destroying fungi that develop during an attack produce millions of microscopic spores and these are widely dispersed by air currents. If they fall on untreated damp wood they will germinate by pushing out a hollow tube called a hypha which grows and branches to form a mass of hyphal threads called mycelium. Mycelium develops inside the timber and breaks down the wood for food. The timber may darken in colour and develop a characteristic cracked appearance. Some wet rots may result in bleaching of the wood; these are more common in doors and window frames. Eventually, the wood loses its strength and in some situations may become dangerously unsafe.
The main differences between dry rot and wet rot are the degree of development of mycelium on the wood surface and the ability of the fungus to spread into other timbers via adjacent masonry.
Types of Fungal Decay